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July 31, 2013

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July 31, 2013 Tattered Tidbit Our,Back Country In 1795 In the mission archives of Santa Barbara there is a faded manuscript by missionary Juan Mariner. It's not an easy read, but it is readable. This Franciscan friar reported the first expedition with six San Diego presidio soldiers led by AIf6rez Don Pablo de Grijalva, to the valley around present Lake Henshaw. AIf6rez is an old Moorish officer's rank. They went by way of Rancho San Luis[Santee], Cafiada de los Alisos[Sycamore Canyon], Pamo (Ramona) and Samptay Luscat, where he counted 109 men. Maybe that was around Mesa Grande. On August 19, 1795, their third day out, they came to the valley whose lower portion is now occupied by Lake Henshaw. Mariner named the valley San Jos6 and estimated its size as 9 by almost 4 miles. The name endures; the estimate was good. Even in summer they found a large gully of water and three springs below the Indian village of Tawee at the base of Monkey Hill. Downstream was much good land. Tawee was similarly described by later missionaries in 1821 and much later was precisely located by U.S. federal surveyors. On an early Spanish-language map, the rocky Monkey Hill was indicated as "pico pedragoso," i.e. rocky peak. Look for it right next to the lake; you can't miss it. Much farther upstream the Indians showed them a very large swamp with three very large springs of water which bubbled up high, as if boiling (3 ojos de agua grandissimos.. .como si estuviese hirviendo). Mariner observed that this water could be conducted to very arable land in the valley called by Indians Jatir Ja. J& (pronounced "ha") meant water in the Mau language (Dieguefio Kumeyaay), and is found in place names like Jamul, Jamacha, Japatul, and Jacumba. Missionaries heard by Albert Simonson the word "mau" a lot. It meant no, and it must have rankled them. It seems that Mariner did not explore as far as Warner Springs (Cupa, or Jacopin, or Agua Caliente), where a different language was spoken, but he explicitly called it by the Indian name Jacopin, so he must have known of it. The question arises as to where these particular artesian springs were situated. Santa Ysabel real estater Donn Bree knows back country ranchland. I gave him the exact text of the Mariner manuscript and asked if he knew of any such springs that would flow abundantly in late summer. Mariner wrote: "It is so good a place that everybody said, and I say also, that it is not only suitable for a mission but also for a presidio and a mission." It seems that relations with the native population were so good that a military presidio was deemed optional. It is generally true that natives were initially tolerant of newcomers until cattle threatened their food sources. Donn responded that the likeliest site is Chimney Lake about 2 miles west of Warner Springs. That is the confluence of Cafiada Agua Caliente and Cafiada Verde. Highway 79 loops around to the north of Chimney Lake near a landing field. Even with modern deep wells drawing down groundwater, these springs are still artesian with verdant vegetation. Evidently, water at Warner Springs is not impeded orwithdrawn sufficiently to dry up these lower springs. Upstream at the head of the gully, Lieutenant Emory with the 1846 Army of the West measured 45 and 137 degrees in adjacent streams. Indians ofAgua Caliente had already dug out pools where these streams could be mixed to a desired temperature simply by redirecting streams in the gravel by hand. On cold nights, they slept in the mixed waters, Tawee or "Monkey Hill / Monkey Island" at Lake Henshaw Photo by Laramie Huffman a prototypical heated water bed with natural circulation for unexcelled personal hygiene. Acenturylater, thetemperatures were still unchanged. Natives valued cleanliness and found the immigrants to be a tad stinky. Mariner's soldier escort noted that the trip from San Diego could be made in one day if only a road were fixed up. Mariner did not linger; they followed the present alignment of Highway 76'down to Pala, which already was known by that name. In doing so, he left the 26 villages where Mau was spoken and entered "Luisefio" territory. Near Lake Henshaw's dam was Curila. Downstream were the villages Topame, Quque, Cupame,, and then Pauma. Years would pass before the padres would have any significant effect upon this part of the country. Cattle with San Diego Mission's SD brand were pastured there but opposition by native people caused the mission later to withdraw the cattle. Flocks of sheep were pastured as well. The mission of San Luis Rey, too, kept animals there. One of the leatherjacket soldiers, Corporal Vicente Feliz, is regarded as the most important in Los Angeles history. On orders from Governor Fages, he commanded the founding of the pueblo Nuestra Sefiora la Reina de Los Angeles. Don Pablo, who came with the Anza expedition from Sonora, was married to an "Espafiola" and kept his own diary of the expedition. Both men were in their fifties, deemed old for the time. Don Pablo was the original ranchero of (Santiago de) Santa Ana. Padre Mariner was buried at San Diego Mission in 1800, remembered for his good relations with Indians. In contrast, another padre, Jos6 Pan,o, flogged his Indian cook so many times in one day that the disgruntled cook put poison in his soup. Many Indians were quite expert at that. Think about that the next time you fussily tell a waiter to return your food to the cook. You never know what he,ll do to it back there. The Indians of Valle de San Jos6 and Agua Caliente were not as profoundly affected by the mission and its herds and flocks as were Santa Ysabel Indians. There is scant evidence of grain fields, an orchard and buildings around 1830. The old and sickly were attended there by famous curandera "La Beata" Apolinaria who devoted her saintly life to both Christian natives and "gentile" pagans on her long and frequent visits. As in Europe and even at ancient Greek "asklepia" [clinics], water therapy was part of the cure. The padres were fondly remembered by Indians in 1846 after the mission had been supplanted by private rancheros and traders and they were found to be living in squalid "feudal" conditions. The Indians remembered better conditions from mission times. They expected better treatment by the invaders from the states in 1846. Instead, they were driven off the land to a camp at Pala. Grijalva's account supports and amplifies Mariner's account, and names more rancherias. Most cannot be located with certainty. His account was summarized bY Bancroft, but not preserved. The Mariner diary original is in Santa Barbara mission archives, Mariner's writing is that of a pioneering agronomist, with only one pro forma rnention of religion. In this, he is unlike the fanatical Junipero Serra who reveled in shed blood and in mortification of his own flesh. Mariner cast an appraising eye The Julian News 9 upon our back country to locate building materials and water and to estimate acheivable harvests in fanegas (Spanish bushels) of beans, maize, and wheat, staples to better the lives of natives. Spiritually, the "gentile" (pagan] Indians were doing just fine with their western-hemispheric faith and I think Mariner was okay with that for the time being. Their religion made sense. Their technology, though, needed upgrading, and it was to come in the form of irrigation, cattle, sheep and good new jobs as Spanish- style vaqueros and farmers. 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