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November 21, 2018     The Julian News
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November 21, 2018 The Julian News 13 toxic rhetoric. It is a display of stupidity, lack of critical thinking skills, complete ignorance of history and the importance of such knowledge to effective governance of a country. The words are used as modifiers to chargeandrampuptheemotional intensity of other words while actually a corruption of terms: illegal immigrants, an invasion of migrants, mass immigration. A caravan is not an invasion. Oxymoronic in their application, misused by those whose agenda are not in the people’s best interest. All this does is show the pervasive ignorance of the user or is it misuser. Words have associations that change over time, waning in meaning and valence. When chosen unwisely, misused and used interchangeably the message is distorted, e.g., the people in caravans from Central America or floating on rubber rafts in the Caribbean or Mediterranean Seas are refugees, not migrants or immigrants, and in my opinion , should be treated as such. The people fleeing Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s were refugees. The First People coming to this continent 15- 20,000 years ago were migrants. They spread out, over a long period, eventually across the entire length and width of the Americas. The small groups of humans moving out of East Africa 1.9 million years ago were migrating. There are critical differences between migrations eons ago and the masses of people that are coming out of North Africa and Central America today. That difference is time. Words can have meaning, time and distance implications as expressed by vocal emphasis and context. The former group took thousands of years in their epic journey, the latter weeks or months. That is a critically important difference. Migrations allow adjustments across impacted sides: the people on the move and the environments they encounter, whereas refugees fleeing dangerous conditions do not. Countries receiving them are overwhelmed, resources limited, citizens alarmed. Natural phenomena like climate evolutions usually take a long time. The critical difference described by scientists today is that humans are accelerating the natural changeover in climate thus shorting the time frame. The conditions experienced now in the Middle East, as review of the 1918 WW I agreements have revealed, is the cause of Middle East conflicts and refugees fleeing for their lives from that area. The human contribution is called anthropogenic, the natural phenomena is called paleoclimatology and there are many contributing vectors to both phenomena. The Camp Fire in Paradise, California is an example of time: extremely short time, no warning, no chance. The situation has overwhelmed resources as has hurricanes in Porto Rico, Houston and Florida. People seeking visas to move here, obtaining Green Cards and later citizenship are emigrants who become immigrants who become residents and then citizens. They are a boost to the economy. Native citizens are individuals who were born within the ZI (Zone of Interior) regardless of the status of their mother. It is called birthright and is inscribed in the 14th amendment of the Constitution. There are other ways to be born a citizen, e.g., born on a ship at sea to US citizens or in another country where Americans reside. It is possible to choose the place where born in some countries when declaring one’s citizenship rather than that of your parents, and in some places one can become a dual citizen at the time of birth. The USA has changed the rules on this matter many times. The U. S. Government also uses various criteria regarding who is welcome into the immigration process. That criteria has changed many times over the history of the country, usually influenced by race, origin, value ascribed, political leanings and economics. One who is a naturalized citizen has gone through the legal channels to obtain the right of citizenship. We often say one is a native or a naturalized citizen, terms that also are mis- applied. What is a native? Seems association is the operative word in this case: think Native American, however the term is also used by groups to imply that another group is not native, emphasizing the longer term of residence or ignoring family or genetic history. Can anyone claim to be a native? Only by definition. Can anyone claim to be a pure anything? Not given modern DNA analysis and genetics. Birth location usually makes the case for all people but residence mucks up the definition because one can be a citizen of one place but a native of another either belonging or associated. And, for all of us, our origins can be traced to Africa. And then, if this is too much for you, the words can get muckier when certain adjectives and adverbs are used to intensify the specifics: a white citizen, or naturalized African. Lumping all these different groups of people into one makes them all appear lessor: unwanted, undeserving or undesirable. It is natural to assume the lowest common denominator; thus all appear to be illegal and seeking something they have not earned or deserved. Logically such assumptions are absurd, at a baser level it plays well into self-disappointment, identity- defectives, the ignorant and those who fear differences and change. Playing dress up in a parade of pseudo-tough guys doesn’t make you one or tough, however, it can very well embolden faulty thinking and behavior. It is like that feeling when straddling your new Hog, kick the throttle, relishing the sudden sense of power. A false notion of manhood and invincibility. It is certain that many people in the country, the news media, certain politicians, and pundits do not comprehend these critical differences, and if they do, then some other agenda other than the storyline is the real message. As such, the storyline is either propaganda or at a minimum rendered questionable or, at worse, untrue. Truth maters. Honesty and integrity matter. Words matter. Scientifically-based facts matter. All are important to the nation’s narrative and to the people’s dialogue. A democratic society depends on an informed and educated public. Our representatives are responsible to us (according to the Constitution) and must be dedicated to the principles written by Thomas Jefferson; “We hold these truths to be self- evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” There is no compromise here. We have however, done a very bad job of it over the short time since Jefferson wrote those famous words. All the verbs, adverbs adjectives and all the politicians in the world cannot change the truth. Truth is not who speaks the words or their particular perspective. Opinion, and perspective is not truth. Truth is reality, an elusive quality of human perception and endeavor, difficult to maintain, difficult to discover and often difficult to accept or appreciate. And now for the rest of the story: As said before humans love to classify and generalize. It makes it easier for us to put things, thoughts and people into boxes as an organizing function. It is a common problem in medicine and psychological diagnostics. The problem is that the boxes become the new reality, e.g., ‘race’ an unfortunate, bias-tinged term started by 19th century archaeologists with good intensions but faulty human views embedded in Christian notions of superiority when experiencing ethnic diversity or behaviors poorly understood. Our two political parties have faulty views of human psychology. Yet with refutingevidencethesetermsand views persist. We just have to spit forward a feel-good explanation, later with new evidence falling in embarrassment. New DNA analytical methods, genealogy, anthropology and biological sciences are merging into a new scientific view of our ancestors. We are finding out the new realities of our human endowment and humanness. Accordingly, there is not one person alive today that is pure anything, except one tribe in Australia who are the original humans. By ethnicity, spiritually, genetically or in any other form of measurement we are all connected. None of us can prove we are natives, for in fact, when measured genetically everyone is tied to just about everyone else in the whole world, past and future. There are only six degrees of freedom, speaking mathematically, that separate any of us geographically. Scientists have discovered that at least five forms of hominids have existed and some of us, alive today, contain the genetic code for at least three of them. The Denisovans and Neanderthals were in Europe and Asia 1.7 million years ago. Anatomically modern humans, as we like to call ourselves, did not migrated out of Africa until 200,000 years ago and only made it to Europe 40,000 years ago where they discovered others, subsequently learning from them how to survive. In other words we are new comers, 1.66 million years late to the party. The five hominid groups mixed it up with anyone willing, and if that individual had 23 chromosomes, out popped an ancestor, yours and mine. Due to the many ‘mass’ migrations, taking eons to unfold, and mixing it up all along the way, well my friends, whether we like it or not, we are all brothers and sisters. No racial differences, just physical feature variance most with different amounts of melanin in our skin that depends on how long our ancestors spent in the northern or southern hemispheres. If you stay in Julian long enough and breed here you will have dark skin, brown eyes and brown hair. On finale morsel for your thoughts:Sciencehasdiscovered by chemical means, or for three hominid groups additional physical evidence, five types of Hominids: Two not yet discovered physical evidence, Denisovans (M-3), Neanderthal (M-4), and anatomically modern (M-5). I use M for model. Many of us carry 2-3 versions in our genetic code. M-5 didn’t kill off M-3 and M-4, they were integrated Those that chose isolation did not thrive, slowly dying out from malnutrition, subsequently failing to replace their populations. That condition is plaguing many Western countries today. Therefore immigrants are important. That also means, as discussed, hominids mixed it up along the long journeys around earth. Another fact appears evident: the family of hominids is evolving, perhaps already among us. M-6 is likely: smarter, more physically and genetically robust, perhaps with perceptional superiority, unbounded by conventional barriers of time and dimension. Let’s hope they find us more relevant than we found the others. C. Englund Deffintions Count continued from page 2 went into choosing it. 7. Don’t reward the lie When your child lies, there’s a reason — they’re seeking something. And if they get it, that can reinforce lying as an effective strategy. So if you notice that your younger child always fabricates a story about getting hurt at school as soon as your older child starts telling you about their day, it might be an attention-seeking behavior. “When a child lies, figure out what dynamic may be going on,” suggests Crossman. “Are there ways you can ignore the lie so they don’t get the reward? Can they get what they’re wanting in some other way?” 8. Catch them being honest We often catch kids in lies, says Talwar, but if we want to teach them to value honesty, we need to look for opportunities to acknowledge when they tell the truth, especially in situations where it might have been easier for them to lie. When your child tells you the truth about something they’ve done, take a moment to show that you appreciate their honesty by saying, “I’m really glad you told me the truth.” 9. Discipline calmly In environments where punishments are doled out harshly and arbitrarily, research shows that kids learn to lie earlier and more skillfully than their counterparts in less punitive environments. That doesn’t mean you shouldn’t discipline. But in an atmosphere with a punitive, authoritarian approach to discipline, developing the ability to lie can be seen as a protective measure. “One thing parents can do is simply not have a great big emotional reaction. The more explosive the parent gets, the more frightened the child gets, and the more likely they are to lie. Simply remaining calm and sticking to the facts you’ve observed is one way to get kids to tell the truth,” says Stavinoha. 10. Have a conversation, not a lecture The more open and conversational the relationship between parent and teen, the more effective, says Dr. John Duffy, clinical psychologist and author of the best-selling The Available Parent: Radical Optimism for Raising Teens and Tweens. “That means more discussing and less lecturing.” When clashes happen, waiting for the situation to abate and approaching your teenager calmly is always going to yield a more positive outcome, he says. And when it comes to raising truthful teens, he recommends discussing issues of honesty and lying openly with your child. “Something along the lines of, ‘We want you to feel free to be honest with us, regardless of what you have to say.’ Teens respond well to this type of communication, but parents have to be prepared for the honesty!” 11. Set clear rules Ninety-eight percent of teenagers worldwide lie to their parents. That’s the conclusion of Dr. Nancy Darling, professor and chair of the Department of Psychology at Oberlin College, who has researched teens and honesty for two decades. Darling says setting clear rules is important for cultivating an honest relationship with teens — and that being strict is okay. However, she says, it’s essential that parents pair this with being emotionally warm and open and accepting, so teens don’t think they will be harshly and unjustly punished. “If you balance these two aspects of parenting clearly, your teenagers will be more likely to ask for your permission and more likely to confess if they have broken a rule. They need to respect you and believe you will be warm, accepting, and non- punitive,” she says. “If kids think you have the right to set rules, if they respect you, they are more likely to be truthful — but they’ll still want to argue with you about what is safe and what they should be allowed to do.” 12. Give them space Respecting teens’ natural desire for privacy can encourage more honesty, Darling says. “You don’t want to be intrusive, you don’t want to get into their business more than you need to,” she cautions. “Ask for only the information you need. If you do that, they will probably provide additional information.” For example, you need to know your teen was safely at a friend’s house on Friday night; you don’t need to know what they talked about. Prying too deeply is asking for teens to push back by putting up barriers or lying, Darling says. So keep it on a need-to-know basis, and if they still clam up, just explain, “You don’t want me to butt into your business, and I don’t want to butt into your business but I have to know because …” and tell them why you need an honest answer. About the author - Charity Ferreira is a senior editor at GreatSchools and the mom of a middle schooler. 12 Tips continued from page 7 daughter has become a vocal activist in her own right, speaking out about injustices, particularly matters of race. What seemed impossible for her to absorb as a child has helped her strength as an adult. Unlike Mukeshimana’s daughter, I wasn’t living in a place where we had to bury our loved ones’ bones. Certain details of my grandfather’s story, like the urine-drinking, could have waited until I was older. But my mother did present him as a hero and glossed over the true horrors until I was older. Educators and psychologists say it’s all about age appropriateness, and every child is different. “Just because they are asking about the past doesn’t mean at a very young age they need to hear all the details,” one advised. Though there is no perfect age for broaching the horrors of living through the Holocaust or the latest suicide bombing, many experts recommend the middle school years. Nonprofit educational group Facing History and Ourselves targets eighth graders in their genocide-related curricula.Therearemanyreasons for this. At that age, adolescents begin to think abstractly and can hold two contradictory thoughts. Personal testimonies can also be placed within the context of history. “If you start to think about who adolescents are, they’re starting to think about their own issues about groups, power, and responsibility,” explained Adam Strom, director of scholarship and innovation for Facing History and Ourselves. “They’re able to make connections between past and present; and they can, when pushed, make distinctions.” In the end, it comes down to an individual philosophy of parenting. Since children all mature differently, there’s not one best way. Yeshiva’s Shawn recommends that parents stick with the style of parenting that suits them best and apply that across the board. Looking back, I’m so grateful my mother shared her father’s story with me. I grew up believing that, somehow, I had inherited this courageous man’s superhero powers. He had truly triumphed over whatever came his way: crossing a desert for six days with only two cups worth of water, summoning incredible inner strength, and miraculously talking his way out of summary execution by empathizing with the gendarmes who were about to kill him. He continues to inspire me, despite my living a century later so far from the killing fields of his youth. By passing on my grandfather’s story to me, my mother also did the most important thing: she ensured that his eyewitness account of history would live on for future generations. Without these stories, our children not only lose connection to their own families, but to the very fabric of history. About the author Dawn Anahid MacKeen is the author of The Hundred-Year Walk: An Armenian Odyssey, which will be out in paperback in January 2017. Previously, she covered health and social issues for Salon, SmartMoney, and Newsday. Her work has appeared in The New York Times Magazine, ELLE, The SundayTimes Magazine (London), Los Angeles Times, and elsewhere. She lives in Southern California. Hard Truths continued from page 10